# [Bitcoin-development] BIP0032

Michael Gronager gronager at ceptacle.com
Mon May 27 09:41:04 UTC 2013

```Pieter,

I was re-reading BIP0032, and checking some of the equations... It seems
to me that there is something wrong (or I have missed something).

As I see it there can only be one HMAC function, used for both private
and public derivation - I assume that:
  CKD((k_par, c_par), i) -> (k_i, c_i)
  CKD'((K_par, c_par), i) -> (K_i, c_i)

Where K_par = k_par*G, will result in K_i = k_i*G (and identical c_i's
in both expressions).

Now following your formulas for :
k_i = I_L + k_par (mod n)
where I_L = {HMACSHA512(c_par, 0x00||k_par||i)}_L (denoting left
256bits). Further c_i = I_R.
This gives a K_i = k_i*G = I_L*G + k_par(mod n)*G

Now follow the formula for :
K_i = (I_L+k_par)*G = I_L*G + K_par
This is not the same as above, however, if we remove the (mod n) we are
getting closer, but still the value of I_L are different in the two
equations as: HMACSHA512(c_par, 0x00||k_par||i) <> HMAXSHA512(c_par,
X(k_par*G)||i).

We can, however, fix things if we change private child key derivation to:

To define CDK((k_par, c_par), i) -> (k_i, c_i):
* (no difference in deriving public or private):
I = HMACSHA512(c_par, X(k_par*G)||i)
* Split I into I_L, I_R (256bits each)
* k_i = k_par + I_L
* c_i = I_R
* and, if using public derivation, we use K_i = (k_par + I_L)*G

Now for pure public derivation (i.e. we don't know the private key):
To define CDK'((K_par, c_par), i) -> (K_i, c_i):
* I = HMACSHA512(c_par, X(K_par)||i)
* Split I into I_L and I_R
* K_i = K_par + I_L*G (= k_par*G + I_L*G = (k_par+I_L)*G = k_i*G)
* c_i = I_R

Now we have the right properties, but it required quite some changes,
also note that c_i are now equal in both private and public derivation.

Comments ?

Sincerely,

Michael

```

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