[bitcoin-dev] Version 1 witness programs (first draft)

Mark Friedenbach mark at friedenbach.org
Sun Oct 1 02:23:47 UTC 2017

The CLEANSTACK rule should be eliminated, and instead the number of items on the stack should be incorporated into the signature hash. That way any script with a CHECKSIG is protected from witness extension malleability, and those rare ones that do not use signature operations can have a “DEPTH 1 EQUALVERIFY” at the end. This allows for much simpler tail-call evaluation as you don’t need to pass arguments on the alt-stack.

> On Sep 30, 2017, at 6:13 PM, Luke Dashjr via bitcoin-dev <bitcoin-dev at lists.linuxfoundation.org> wrote:
> I've put together a first draft for what I hope to be a good next step for 
> Segwit and Bitcoin scripting:
>    https://github.com/luke-jr/bips/blob/witnessv1/bip-witnessv1.mediawiki
> This introduces 5 key changes:
> 1. Minor versions for witnesses, inside the witness itself. Essentially the 
> witness [major] version 1 simply indicates the witness commitment is SHA256d, 
> and nothing more.
> The remaining two are witness version 1.0 (major 1, minor 0):
> 2. As previously discussed, undefined opcodes immediately cause the script to 
> exit with success, making future opcode softforks a lot more flexible.
> 3. If the final stack element is not exactly true or false, it is interpreted 
> as a tail-call Script and executed. (Credit to Mark Friedenbach)
> 4. A new shorter fixed-length signature format, eliminating the need to guess 
> the signature size in advance. All signatures are 65 bytes, unless a condition 
> script is included (see #5).
> 5. The ability for signatures to commit to additional conditions, expressed in 
> the form of a serialized Script in the signature itself. This would be useful 
> in combination with OP_CHECKBLOCKATHEIGHT (BIP 115), hopefully ending the 
> whole replay protection argument by introducing it early to Bitcoin before any 
> further splits.
> This last part is a big ugly right now: the signature must commit to the 
> script interpreter flags and internal "sigversion", which basically serve the 
> same purpose. The reason for this, is that otherwise someone could move the 
> signature to a different context in an attempt to exploit differences in the 
> various Script interpretation modes. I don't consider the BIP deployable 
> without this getting resolved, but I'm not sure what the best approach would 
> be. Maybe it should be replaced with a witness [major] version and witness 
> stack?
> There is also draft code implementing [the consensus side of] this:
>    https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/compare/master...luke-jr:witnessv1
> Thoughts? Anything I've overlooked / left missing that would be 
> uncontroversial and desirable? (Is any of this unexpectedly controversial for 
> some reason?)
> Luke
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