[bitcoin-dev] Taproot updates

Pieter Wuille pieter.wuille at gmail.com
Wed Oct 9 21:34:32 UTC 2019

Hi all,

I wanted to give an update on some of the changes we've made to the
bip-schnorr/taproot/tapscript drafts following discussions on this
* The original post:
and follow-ups
* Using 2 or 4 byte indexes:
* 32-byte public keys:
* Resource limits:
* P2SH support or not:

We've made the following semantical changes to the proposal:
* 32-byte public keys everywhere instead of 33-byte ones: dropping one
byte that provably does not contribute to security, while remaining
compatible with existing BIP32 and other key generation algorithms.
* No more P2SH support: more efficient chain usage, no gratuitous
fungibility loss from having 2 versions, no mode limited to 80-bit
security for non-interactive multiuser constructs; however senders
will need bech32 support to send to Taproot outputs.
* 32-bit txin position and codesep position indexes instead of 16-bits ones.
* Tagged hashes also in bip-schnorr: the signature and nonce
generation now also use tagged hashes, rather than direct SHA256
(previously tagged hashes were only used in bip-taproot and
* Dropping the 10000 byte script limit and 201 non-push opcode limit:
as no operations remain whose validation performance depends on the
size of scripts or number of executed opcodes, these limits serve no
purpose, but complicate creation of Scripts.
* Increased the limit on the depth of Merkle trees from 32 to 128: a
limit of 32 would necessitate suboptimal trees in some cases, but more
than 128 levels are only necessary when dealing with leaves that have
a chance of ~1/2^128 of being executed, which our security level
treats as impossible anyway.

See the updated documents:
* https://github.com/sipa/bips/blob/bip-schnorr/bip-schnorr.mediawiki
* https://github.com/sipa/bips/blob/bip-schnorr/bip-taproot.mediawiki
* https://github.com/sipa/bips/blob/bip-schnorr/bip-tapscript.mediawiki

In addition, a lot of clarifications and rationales were added. The
reference implementation on
https://github.com/sipa/bitcoin/commits/taproot was also updated to
reflect these changes, has a cleaner commit history now, and improved
tests (though those can still use a lot of work).



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