[bitcoin-dev] Detailed protocol design for routed multi-transaction CoinSwap

Nadav Kohen nadav at suredbits.com
Thu Aug 20 15:28:56 UTC 2020

Hey Chris and all,

Looking good :) I have one major concern though

>    q = EC privkey generated by maker
>    Q = q.G = EC pubkey published by maker
>    p = nonce generated by taker
>    P = p.G = nonce point calculated by taker
>    R = Q + P = pubkey used in bitcoin transaction
>      = (q + p).G

If I'm understanding this correctly (which I'm not sure I ame), it seems
like the plan is to put R on-chain as the key to an output? As stated this
is completely insecure as Q is known in advance so the taker can always
choose a nonce p but then claim that their nonce point is p.G - Q so that
the key that goes on-chain is (p.G - Q + Q) = p.G allowing them to steal
the funds. If the plan is not to use full-fledged 2-ECDSA (which I think is
actually necessary as I still don't understand how the HTLC signatures are
generated) you have to, at the very least, force the taker to provide a
Zero Knowledge Proof of Knowledge (ZKPoK) of the discrete log to the point
they advertise as their nonce point to avoid this. Alternatively, I think
you can use the following key as is done in MuSig:

R = H(Q || P || Q)*Q + H(Q || P || P)*P

But I still don't see how signatures can be generated for HTLCs from this

Of course all of this complexity more or less goes away once we have
Schnorr signatures and can use MuSig with adaptor signatures.


On Thu, Aug 20, 2020 at 6:17 AM ZmnSCPxj via bitcoin-dev <
bitcoin-dev at lists.linuxfoundation.org> wrote:

> Good morning Chris,
> Great to see this!
> Mostly minor comments.
> >
> > == Direct connections to Alice ===
> >
> > Only Alice, the taker, knows the entire route, Bob and Charlie just know
> > their previous and next transactions. Bob and Charlie do not have direct
> > connections with each other, only with Alice.
> >
> > Diagram of Tor connections:
> >
> > Bob Charlie
> > | /
> > | /
> > | /
> > Alice
> >
> > When Bob and Charlie communicate, they are actually sending and
> > receiving messages via Alice who relays them to Charlie or Bob. This
> > helps hide whether the previous or next counterparty in a CoinSwap route
> > is a maker or taker.
> >
> > This doesn't have security issues even in the final steps where private
> > keys are handed over, because those private keys are always for 2-of-2
> > multisig and so on their own are never enough to steal money.
> This has a massive advantage over CoinJoin.
> In CoinJoin, since all participants sign a single transaction, every
> participant knows the total number of participants.
> Thus, in CoinJoin, it is fairly useless to have just one taker and one
> maker, the maker knows exactly which output belongs to the taker.
> Even if all communications were done via the single paying taker, the
> maker(s) are shown the final transaction and thus can easily know how many
> participants there are (by counting the number of equal-valued outputs).
> With CoinSwap, in principle no maker has to know how many other makers are
> in the swap.
> Thus it would still be useful to make a single-maker CoinSwap, as that
> would be difficult, for the maker, to diferentiate from a multi-maker
> CoinSwap.
> There are still a few potential leaks though:
> * If paying through a CoinSwap, the cheapest option for the taker would be
> to send out a single large UTXO (single-output txes) to the first maker,
> and then demand the final payment and any change as two separate swaps from
> the final maker.
>   * Intermediate makers are likely to not have exact amounts, thus is
> unlikely to create a single-output tx when forwarding.
>   * Thus, the first maker could identify the taker.
> * The makers can try timing the communications lag with the taker.
>   The general assumption would be that more makers == more delay in taker
> responses.
> >
> > === Miner fees ===
> >
> > Makers have no incentive to pay any miner fees. They only do
> > transactions which earn them an income and are willing to wait a very
> > long time for that to happen. By contrast takers want to create
> > transactions far more urgently. In JoinMarket we coded a protocol where
> > the maker could contribute to miner fees, but the market price offered
> > of that trended towards zero. So the reality is that takers will pay all
> > the miner fees. Also because makers don't know the taker's time
> > preference they don't know how much they should pay in miner fees.
> >
> > The taker will have to set limits on how large the maker's transactions
> > are, otherwise makers could abuse this by having the taker consolidate
> > maker's UTXOs for free.
> Why not have the taker pay for the *first* maker-spent UTXO and have
> additional maker-spent UTXOs paid for by the maker?
> i.e. the taker indicates "swap me 1 BTC in 3 bags of 0.3, 0.3, and 0.4
> BTC", and pays for one UTXO spent for each "bag" (thus pays for 3 UTXOs).
> Disagreements on feerate can be resolved by having the taker set the
> feerate, i.e. "the customer is always right".
> Thus if the maker *has to* spend two UTXOs to make up the 0.4 BTC bag, it
> pays for the mining fees for that extra UTXO.
> The maker can always reject the swap attempt if it *has to* spend multiple
> UTXOs and would lose money doing so if the taker demands a too-high feerate.
> > == Contract transaction definitions ==
> >
> > Contract transactions are those which may spend from the 2-of-2 multisig
> > outputs, they transfer the coins into a contract where the coins can be
> > spent either by waiting for a timeout or providing a hash preimage
> > value. Ideally contract transactions will never be broadcast but their
> > existence keeps all parties honest.
> >
> > M~ is miner fees, which we treat as a random variable, and ultimately
> > set by whichever pre-signed RBF tx get mined. When we talk about the
> > contract tx, we actually mean perhaps 20-30 transactions which only
> > differ by the miner fee and have RBF enabled, so they can be broadcasted
> > in sequence to get the contract transaction mined regardless of the
> > demand for block space.
> The highest-fee version could have, in addition, CPFP-anchor outputs, like
> those being proposed in Lightning, so even if onchain fees rise above the
> largest fee reservation, it is possible to add even more fees.
> Or not.
> Hmm.
> Another thought: later you describe that miner fees are paid by Alice by
> forwarding those fees as well, how does that work when there are multiple
> versions of the contract transaction?
> >
> > (Alice+timelock_A OR Bob+hash) = Is an output which can be spent
> > either with Alice's private key
> > after waiting for a relative
> > timelock_A, or by Bob's private key by
> > revealing a hash preimage value
> The rationale for relative timelocks is that it makes private key turnover
> slightly more useable by ensuring that, after private key turnover, it is
> possible to wait indefinitely to spend the UTXO it received.
> This is in contrast with absolute timelocks, where after private key
> turnover, it is required to spend received UTXO before the absolute timeout.
> The dangers are:
> * Until it receives the private key, if either of the incoming or outgoing
> contract transactions are confirmed, every swap participant (taker or
> maker) should also broadcast the other contract transaction, and resolve by
> onchain transactions (with loss of privacy).
> * After receiving the private key, if the incoming contract transaction is
> confirmed, it should spend the resulting contract output.
> * It is possible to steal from a participant if that participant goes
> offline longer than the timeout.
>   This may imply that there may have to be some minimum timeout that
> makers indicate in their advertisements.
>   * The taker can detect if the first maker is offline, then if it is
> offline, try a contract transaction broadcast, if it confirms, the taker
> can wait for the timeout; if it times out, the taker can clawback the
> transaction.
>     * This appears to be riskless for the taker.
>     * Against a similar attack, Lightning requires channel reserves, which
> means the first hop never gains control of the entire value, which is a
> basic requirement for private key turnover.
>   * On the other hand, the taker has the largest timeout before it can
> clawback the funds, so it would wait for a long time, and at any time in
> between the first maker can come online and spend using the hashlock branch.
>     * But the taker can just try on the hope it works; it has nothing to
> lose.
>   * This attack seems to be possible only for the taker to mount.
>     Other makers on the route cannot know who the other makers are,
> without cooperation of the taker, who is the only one who knows all the
> makers.
>     * On the other hand, the last maker in the route has an outgoing HTLC
> with the smallest timelock, so it is the least-risk and therefore a maker
> who notices its outgoing HTLC has a low timeout might want to just do this
> anyway even if it is unsure if the taker is offline.
>   * Participants might want to spend from the UTXO to a new address after
> private key turnover anyway.
>     Makers could spend using a low-fee RBF-enabled tx, and when another
> request comes in for another swap, try to build a new funding tx with a
> higher-fee bump.
> > A possible attack by a malicious Alice is that she chooses M1 to be very
> > low (e.g. 1 sat/vbyte) and sets M2 and M3 to be very high (e.g. 1000
> > sat/vb) and then intentionally aborts, forcing the makers to lose much
> > more money in miner fees than the attacker. The attack can be used to
> > waste away Bob's and Charlie's coins on miner fees at little cost to the
> > malicious taker Alice. So to defend against this attack Bob and Charlie
> > must refuse to sign a contract transaction if the corresponding funding
> > transaction pays miner fees greater than Alice's funding transaction.
> Sorry, I do not follow the logic for this...?
> > The timelocks are staggered so that if Alice uses the preimage to take
> > coins then the right people will also learn the preimage and have enough
> > time to be able to get their coins back too. Alice starts with knowledge
> > of the hash preimage so she must have a longest timelock.
> More precisely:
> * The HTLC outgoing from Alice has the longest timelock.
> * The HTLC incoming into Alice has the shortest timelock.
> For the makers, they only need to ensure that the incoming timelock is
> much larger than the outgoing timelock.
> >
> > == EC tweak to reduce one round trip ==
> >
> > When two parties are agreeing on a 2-of-2 multisig address, they need to
> > agree on their public keys. We can avoid one round trip by using the EC
> > tweak trick.
> >
> > When Alice, the taker, downloads the entire offer book for the liquidity
> > market, the offers will also contain a EC public key. Alice can tweak
> > this to generate a brand new public key for which the maker knows the
> > private key. This public key will be one of the keys in the 2-of-2
> > multisig. This feature removes one round trip from the protocol.
> >
> > q = EC privkey generated by maker
> > Q = q.G = EC pubkey published by maker
> >
> > p = nonce generated by taker
> > P = p.G = nonce point calculated by taker
> >
> > R = Q + P = pubkey used in bitcoin transaction
> > = (q + p).G
> Whoa whoa whoa whoa.
> All this time I was thinking you were going to use 2p-ECDSA for all
> 2-of-2s.
> In which case, the private key generated by the taker would be sufficient
> tweak to blind this.
> In 2p-ECDSA, for two participants M = m * G; T = t * G, the total key is m
> * t * G = m * T = t * M.
> Are you going to use `2 <T> <Q+P> 2 OP_CHECKMULTISIG` instead of 2p-ECDSA?
> Note that you cannot usefully hide among Lightning mutual closes, because
> of the reserve; Lightning mutual closes are very very likely to be spent in
> a 1-input (that spends from a 2-of-2 P2WSH), 2-output (that pays to two
> P2WPKHs) tx.
> >
> > == Protocol ==
> > ---8<------
> The protocol looks correct to me.
> LOL.
> Give me a little more time to check it in detail hahaha.
> >     ==== Retaliation as DOS-resistance ====
> >
> >     In some situations (e.g. step 8.) if one maker in the coinswap route
> is
> >     the victim of a DOS they will retaliate by DOSing the previous maker
> in
> >     the route. This may seem unnecessary and unfair (after all why waste
> >     even more time and block space) but is actually the best way to
> resist
> >     DOS because it produces a concrete cost every time a DOS happens.
> I agree.
> >
> >     == Analysis of deviations ==
> >
> >     This section discusses what happens if one party deviates from the
> >     protocol by doing something else, for example broadcasting a htlc
> >     contract tx when they shouldnt have.
> >
> >     The party name refers to what that party does, followed by other
> party's
> >     reactions to it.
> >     e.g. Party1: does a thing, Party2/Party3: does a thing in reaction
> >
> >     If multiple deviations are possible in a step then they are numbered
> >     e.g. A1 A2 A2 etc
> >
> >     0-2. Alice/Bob/Charlie: nothing else is possible except following the
> >     protocol or aborting
> >
> > 8.  Alice: broadcasts one or more of the A htlc txes. Bob/Charlie/Dennis:
> >     do nothing, they havent lost any time or money.
> >     4-6. Bob/Charlie: nothing else is possible except following the
> protocol
> >     or aborting.
> >
> > 9.  Bob: broadcasts one or more of the B htlc txes, Alice: broadcasts all
> >     her own A htlc txes and waits for the timeout to get her money back.
> >     Charlie: do nothing
> >
> > 10.  Charlie: nothing else is possible except following the protocol or
> >     aborting.
> >
> > 11.  Alice: broadcasts one or more of the A htlc txes. Bob: broadcasts
> all
> >     his own A htlc txes and waits for the timeout.
> >     A. same as 8.
> >     B. Charlie: broadcasts one or more of the C htlc txes, Alice/Bob:
> >     broadcasts all their own htlc txes and waits for the timeout to get
> >     their money back.
> >     C-E1. Alice: broadcasts all of C htlc txes and uses her knowledge of
> the
> >     preimage hash to take the money immediately. Charlie: broadcasts
> >     all of B htlc txes and reading the hash value from the blockchain,
> >     uses it to take the money from B htlc immediately. Bob: broadcasts
> >     all of A htlc txes, and reading hash from the blockchain, uses it
> >     to take the money from A htlc immediately.
> >     C-E2. Alice: broadcast her own A htlc txes, and after a timeout take
> the
> >     money. Bob: broadcast his own B htlc txes and after the timeout
> >     take their money. Charlie: broadcast his own C htlc txes and after
> >     the timeout take their money.
> >     F1. Bob: broadcast one or more of A htcl txes and use the hash
> preimage
> >     to get the money immediately. He already knows both privkeys of the
> >     multisig so this is pointless and just damages privacy and wastes
> >     miner fees. Alice: blacklist Bob's fidelity bond.
> >     F2. Bob: broadcast one or more of the C htlc txes. Charlie: use
> preimage
> >     to get his money immediately. Bob's actions were pointless. Alice:
> >     cant tell whether Bob or Charlie actually broadcasted, so blacklist
> >     both fidelity bonds.
> >     G1. Charlie: broadcast one or more of B htcl txes and use the hash
> >     preimage to get the money immediately. He already knows both
> >     privkeys of the multisig so this is pointless and just damages
> >     privacy and wastes miner fees. Alice: cant tell whether Bob or
> >     Charlie actually broadcasted, so blacklist both fidelity bonds.
> >     G2. Charlie: broadcast one or more of the A htlc txes. Alice:
> broadcast
> >     the remaining A htlc txes and use preimage to get her money
> >     immediately. Charlies's actions were pointless. Alice: blacklist
> >     Charlie's fidelity bond.
> >
> >     The multisig outputs of the funding transactions can stay unspent
> >     indefinitely. However the parties must always be watching the network
> >     and ready to respond with their own sweep using a preimage. This is
> >     because the other party still possesses a fully-signed contract tx.
> The
> >     parties respond in the same way as in steps C-E1, F2 and G2. Alice's
> >     reaction of blacklisting both fidelity bonds might not be the right
> way,
> >     because one maker could use it to get another one blacklisted (as
> well
> >     as themselves).
> Looks OK, though note that a participant might try to do so (as pointed
> out above) in the hope that the next participant is offline.
> Thank you very much for your writeup!
> Regards,
> ZmnSCPxj
> _______________________________________________
> bitcoin-dev mailing list
> bitcoin-dev at lists.linuxfoundation.org
> https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/mailman/listinfo/bitcoin-dev
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