[RFC v2][PATCH 4/9] Memory management - dump state

Dave Hansen dave at linux.vnet.ibm.com
Fri Aug 22 13:37:02 PDT 2008


On Wed, 2008-08-20 at 23:05 -0400, Oren Laadan wrote:
> index 7ecafb3..0addb63 100644
> --- a/checkpoint/ckpt.h
> +++ b/checkpoint/ckpt.h
> @@ -29,6 +29,9 @@ struct cr_ctx {
>   	void *hbuf;		/* header: to avoid many alloc/dealloc */
>   	int hpos;
> 
> +	struct cr_pgarr *pgarr;
> +	struct cr_pgarr *pgcur;
> +
>   	struct path *vfsroot;	/* container root */
>   };

These need much better variable names.  From this, I have no idea what
they do.  Checkpoint Restart Pirates Go ARR!

> @@ -62,6 +65,9 @@ int cr_read_obj(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct cr_hdr *h, void *buf, int n);
>   int cr_read_obj_type(struct cr_ctx *ctx, void *buf, int n, int type);
>   int cr_read_str(struct cr_ctx *ctx, void *str, int n);
> 
> +int cr_write_mm(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct task_struct *t);
> +int cr_read_mm(struct cr_ctx *ctx);
> +
>   int do_checkpoint(struct cr_ctx *ctx);
>   int do_restart(struct cr_ctx *ctx);
> 
> diff --git a/checkpoint/ckpt_arch.h b/checkpoint/ckpt_arch.h
> index b7cc8c9..3b87a6f 100644
> --- a/checkpoint/ckpt_arch.h
> +++ b/checkpoint/ckpt_arch.h
> @@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
> 
>   int cr_write_thread(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct task_struct *t);
>   int cr_write_cpu(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct task_struct *t);
> +int cr_write_mm_context(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct mm_struct *mm, int ptag);
> 
>   int cr_read_thread(struct cr_ctx *ctx);
>   int cr_read_cpu(struct cr_ctx *ctx);
> diff --git a/checkpoint/ckpt_hdr.h b/checkpoint/ckpt_hdr.h
> index a478b7c..a3919cf 100644
> --- a/checkpoint/ckpt_hdr.h
> +++ b/checkpoint/ckpt_hdr.h
> @@ -30,6 +30,7 @@ struct cr_hdr {
>   	__u32 ptag;
>   };
> 
> +/* header types */
>   enum {
>   	CR_HDR_HEAD = 1,
>   	CR_HDR_STR,
> @@ -45,6 +46,12 @@ enum {
>   	CR_HDR_TAIL = 5001
>   };
> 
> +/* vma subtypes */
> +enum {
> +	CR_VMA_ANON = 1,
> +	CR_VMA_FILE
> +};

Is this really necessary, or can we infer it from the contents of the
VMA?

>   struct cr_hdr_head {
>   	__u64 magic;
> 
> @@ -83,4 +90,28 @@ struct cr_hdr_task {
>   	char comm[TASK_COMM_LEN];
>   } __attribute__ ((aligned (8)));
> 
> +struct cr_hdr_mm {
> +	__u32 tag;	/* sharing identifier */

If this really is a sharing identifier, we need a:

struct cr_shared_object_ref {
	__u32 tag;
}; 

And then one of *those* in the vma struct.  Make it much more idiot (aka
Dave) proof.

> +	__s16 map_count;
> +	__s16 _padding;
> +
> +	__u64 start_code, end_code, start_data, end_data;
> +	__u64 start_brk, brk, start_stack;
> +	__u64 arg_start, arg_end, env_start, env_end;
> +
> +} __attribute__ ((aligned (8)));
> +
> +struct cr_hdr_vma {
> +	__u32 how;

It is too bad that we can't actually use the enum type here.  It would
make it *much* more obvious what this was.  I actually had to go look at
the code below to figure it out.

> +	__s16 npages;

Wow.  Linux only supports 256MB in a single VMA?  I didn't know that.
Maybe we should make this type bigger.  :)

This also needs to get called something much more descriptive, like
nr_present_pages.



>   #endif /* _CHECKPOINT_CKPT_HDR_H_ */
> diff --git a/checkpoint/ckpt_mem.c b/checkpoint/ckpt_mem.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..a23aa29
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/checkpoint/ckpt_mem.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,382 @@
> +/*
> + *  Checkpoint memory contents
> + *
> + *  Copyright (C) 2008 Oren Laadan
> + *
> + *  This file is subject to the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public
> + *  License.  See the file COPYING in the main directory of the Linux
> + *  distribution for more details.
> + */
> +
> +#include <linux/kernel.h>
> +#include <linux/sched.h>
> +#include <linux/slab.h>
> +#include <linux/file.h>
> +#include <linux/pagemap.h>
> +#include <linux/mm_types.h>
> +
> +#include "ckpt.h"
> +#include "ckpt_hdr.h"
> +#include "ckpt_arch.h"
> +#include "ckpt_mem.h"
> +
> +/*
> + * utilities to alloc, free, and handle 'struct cr_pgarr'
> + * (common to ckpt_mem.c and rstr_mem.c)
> + */
> +
> +#define CR_PGARR_ORDER  0
> +#define CR_PGARR_TOTAL  ((PAGE_SIZE << CR_PGARR_ORDER) / sizeof(void *))

Another allocator?  Really?

> +/* release pages referenced by a page-array */
> +void _cr_pgarr_release(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct cr_pgarr *pgarr)
> +{
> +	int n;
> +
> +	/* only checkpoint keeps references to pages */
> +	if (ctx->flags & CR_CTX_CKPT) {
> +		cr_debug("nused %d\n", pgarr->nused);
> +		for (n = pgarr->nused; n--; )
> +			page_cache_release(pgarr->pages[n]);
> +	}
> +	pgarr->nused = 0;
> +	pgarr->nleft = CR_PGARR_TOTAL;
> +}
> +
> +/* release pages referenced by chain of page-arrays */
> +void cr_pgarr_release(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
> +{
> +	struct cr_pgarr *pgarr;
> +
> +	for (pgarr = ctx->pgarr; pgarr; pgarr = pgarr->next)
> +		_cr_pgarr_release(ctx, pgarr);
> +}
> +
> +/* free a chain of page-arrays */
> +void cr_pgarr_free(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
> +{
> +	struct cr_pgarr *pgarr, *pgnxt;
> +
> +	for (pgarr = ctx->pgarr; pgarr; pgarr = pgnxt) {
> +		_cr_pgarr_release(ctx, pgarr);
> +		free_pages((unsigned long) ctx->pgarr->addrs, CR_PGARR_ORDER);
> +		free_pages((unsigned long) ctx->pgarr->pages, CR_PGARR_ORDER);
> +		pgnxt = pgarr->next;
> +		kfree(pgarr);
> +	}
> +}
> +
> +/* allocate and add a new page-array to chain */
> +struct cr_pgarr *cr_pgarr_alloc(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct cr_pgarr **pgnew)
> +{
> +	struct cr_pgarr *pgarr = ctx->pgcur;
> +
> +	if (pgarr && pgarr->next) {
> +		ctx->pgcur = pgarr->next;
> +		return pgarr->next;
> +	}
> +
> +	if ((pgarr = kzalloc(sizeof(*pgarr), GFP_KERNEL))) {

This entire nested if(){} should be brought back to 1 tab.  Remember, no
assignments in if() conditions.

> +		pgarr->nused = 0;
> +		pgarr->nleft = CR_PGARR_TOTAL;
> +		pgarr->addrs = (unsigned long *)
> +			__get_free_pages(GFP_KERNEL, CR_PGARR_ORDER);
> +		pgarr->pages = (struct page **)
> +			__get_free_pages(GFP_KERNEL, CR_PGARR_ORDER);
> +		if (likely(pgarr->addrs && pgarr->pages)) {
> +			*pgnew = pgarr;
> +			ctx->pgcur = pgarr;
> +			return pgarr;
> +		} else if (pgarr->addrs)
> +			free_pages((unsigned long) pgarr->addrs,
> +				   CR_PGARR_ORDER);
> +		kfree(pgarr);
> +	}
> +
> +	return NULL;
> +}
> +
> +/* return current page-array (and allocate if needed) */
> +struct cr_pgarr *cr_pgarr_prep(struct cr_ctx *ctx)
> +{
> +	struct cr_pgarr *pgarr = ctx->pgcur;
> +
> +	if (unlikely(!pgarr->nleft))
> +		pgarr = cr_pgarr_alloc(ctx, &pgarr->next);
> +	return pgarr;
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Checkpoint is outside the context of the checkpointee, so one cannot
> + * simply read pages from user-space. Instead, we scan the address space
> + * of the target to cherry-pick pages of interest. Selected pages are
> + * enlisted in a page-array chain (attached to the checkpoint context).
> + * To save their contents, each page is mapped to kernel memory and then
> + * dumped to the file descriptor.
> + */
> +
> +/**
> + * cr_vma_fill_pgarr - fill a page-array with addr/page tuples for a vma
> + * @ctx - checkpoint context
> + * @pgarr - page-array to fill
> + * @vma - vma to scan
> + * @start - start address (updated)
> + */
> +static int cr_vma_fill_pgarr(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct cr_pgarr *pgarr,
> +			     struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long *start)
> +{
> +	unsigned long end = vma->vm_end;
> +	unsigned long addr = *start;
> +	struct page **pagep;
> +	unsigned long *addrp;
> +	int cow, nr, ret = 0;
> +
> +	nr = pgarr->nleft;
> +	pagep = &pgarr->pages[pgarr->nused];
> +	addrp = &pgarr->addrs[pgarr->nused];
> +	cow = !!vma->vm_file;
> +
> +	while (addr < end) {
> +		struct page *page;
> +
> +		/* simplified version of get_user_pages(): already have vma,
> +		* only need FOLL_TOUCH, and (for now) ignore fault stats */
> +
> +		cond_resched();
> +		while (!(page = follow_page(vma, addr, FOLL_TOUCH))) {
> +			ret = handle_mm_fault(vma->vm_mm, vma, addr, 0);
> +			if (ret & VM_FAULT_ERROR) {
> +				if (ret & VM_FAULT_OOM)
> +					ret = -ENOMEM;
> +				else if (ret & VM_FAULT_SIGBUS)
> +					ret = -EFAULT;
> +				else
> +					BUG();
> +				break;
> +			}
> +			cond_resched();
> +		}

At best this needs to get folded back into its own function.  This is
pretty hard to read as-is.  Also, are there truly no in-kernel functions
that can be used for this?

> +		if (IS_ERR(page)) {
> +			ret = PTR_ERR(page);
> +			break;
> +		}
> +
> +		if (page == ZERO_PAGE(0))
> +			page = NULL;	/* zero page: ignore */
> +		else if (cow && page_mapping(page) != NULL)
> +			page = NULL;	/* clean cow: ignore */
> +		else {

Put the curly brackets in here.  It doesn't take up space.

> +			get_page(page);
> +			*(addrp++) = addr;
> +			*(pagep++) = page;
> +			if (--nr == 0) {
> +				addr += PAGE_SIZE;
> +				break;
> +			}
> +		}
> +
> +		addr += PAGE_SIZE;
> +	}
> +
> +	if (unlikely(ret < 0)) {
> +		nr = pgarr->nleft - nr;
> +		while (nr--)
> +			page_cache_release(*(--pagep));
> +		return ret;
> +	}
> +
> +	*start = addr;
> +	return (pgarr->nleft - nr);
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * cr_vma_scan_pages - scan vma for pages that will need to be dumped
> + * @ctx - checkpoint context
> + * @vma - vma to scan
> + *
> + * a list of addr/page tuples is kept in ctx->pgarr page-array chain
> + */
> +static int cr_vma_scan_pages(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
> +{
> +	unsigned long addr = vma->vm_start;
> +	unsigned long end = vma->vm_end;
> +	struct cr_pgarr *pgarr;
> +	int nr, total = 0;
> +
> +	while (addr < end) {
> +		if (!(pgarr = cr_pgarr_prep(ctx)))
> +			return -ENOMEM;
> +		if ((nr = cr_vma_fill_pgarr(ctx, pgarr, vma, &addr)) < 0)
> +			return nr;
> +		pgarr->nleft -= nr;
> +		pgarr->nused += nr;
> +		total += nr;
> +	}
> +
> +	cr_debug("total %d\n", total);
> +	return total;
> +}
> +
> +/**
> + * cr_vma_dump_pages - dump pages listed in the ctx page-array chain
> + * @ctx - checkpoint context
> + * @total - total number of pages
> + */
> +static int cr_vma_dump_pages(struct cr_ctx *ctx, int total)
> +{
> +	struct cr_pgarr *pgarr;
> +	int ret;
> +
> +	if (!total)
> +		return 0;
> +
> +	for (pgarr = ctx->pgarr; pgarr; pgarr = pgarr->next) {
> +		ret = cr_kwrite(ctx, pgarr->addrs,
> +			       pgarr->nused * sizeof(*pgarr->addrs));
> +		if (ret < 0)
> +			return ret;
> +	}
> +
> +	for (pgarr = ctx->pgarr; pgarr; pgarr = pgarr->next) {
> +		struct page **pages = pgarr->pages;
> +		int nr = pgarr->nused;
> +		void *ptr;
> +
> +		while (nr--) {
> +			ptr = kmap(*pages);
> +			ret = cr_kwrite(ctx, ptr, PAGE_SIZE);
> +			kunmap(*pages);

Why not use kmap_atomic() here?

> +			if (ret < 0)
> +				return ret;
> +			pages++;
> +		}
> +	}
> +
> +	return total;
> +}
> +
> +static int cr_write_vma(struct cr_ctx *ctx, struct vm_area_struct *vma)
> +{
> +	struct cr_hdr h;
> +	struct cr_hdr_vma *hh = ctx->hbuf;
> +	char *fname = NULL;
> +	int flen = 0, how, nr, ret;
> +
> +	h.type = CR_HDR_VMA;
> +	h.len = sizeof(*hh);
> +	h.ptag = 0;
> +
> +	hh->vm_start = vma->vm_start;
> +	hh->vm_end = vma->vm_end;
> +	hh->vm_page_prot = vma->vm_page_prot.pgprot;
> +	hh->vm_flags = vma->vm_flags;
> +	hh->vm_pgoff = vma->vm_pgoff;
> +
> +	if (vma->vm_flags & (VM_SHARED | VM_IO | VM_HUGETLB | VM_NONLINEAR)) {
> +		pr_warning("CR: unknown VMA %#lx\n", vma->vm_flags);
> +		return -ETXTBSY;
> +	}

Hmmm.  Interesting error code for VM_HUGETLB.  :)

> +	/* by default assume anon memory */
> +	how = CR_VMA_ANON;
> +
> +	/* if there is a backing file, assume private-mapped */
> +	/* (NEED: check if the file is unlinked) */
> +	if (vma->vm_file) {
> +		flen = PAGE_SIZE;
> +		fname = cr_fill_fname(&vma->vm_file->f_path,
> +				      ctx->vfsroot, ctx->tbuf, &flen);
> +		if (IS_ERR(fname))
> +			return PTR_ERR(fname);
> +		how = CR_VMA_FILE;
> +	}
> +
> +	hh->how = how;
> +	hh->fname = !!fname;
> +
> +	/*
> +	 * it seems redundant now, but we do it in 3 steps for because:
> +	 * first, the logic is simpler when we how many pages before
> +	 * dumping them; second, a future optimization will defer the
> +	 * writeout (dump, and free) to a later step; in which case all
> +	 * the pages to be dumped will be aggregated on the checkpoint ctx
> +	 */
> +
> +	/* (1) scan: scan through the PTEs of the vma to count the pages
> +	 * to dump (and later make those pages COW), and keep the list of
> +	 * pages (and a reference to each page) on the checkpoint ctx */
> +	nr = cr_vma_scan_pages(ctx, vma);
> +	if (nr < 0)
> +		return nr;
> +
> +	hh->npages = nr;
> +	ret = cr_write_obj(ctx, &h, hh);
> +
> +	if (!ret && flen)
> +		ret = cr_write_str(ctx, fname, flen);
> +
> +	if (ret < 0)
> +		return ret;
> +
> +	/* (2) dump: write out the addresses of all pages in the list (on
> +	 * the checkpoint ctx) followed by the contents of all pages */
> +	ret = cr_vma_dump_pages(ctx, nr);
> +
> +	/* (3) free: free the extra references to the pages in the list */
> +	cr_pgarr_release(ctx);
> +
> +	return ret;
> +}

This gets simpler-looking if you just defer the filename processing
until you actually go to write it out.  

-- Dave



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