[EXAMPLE CODE] Parasite thread injection and TCP connection hijacking

Tejun Heo tj at kernel.org
Sat Aug 6 05:12:47 PDT 2011

Hello, guys.

So, here's transparent TCP connection hijacking (ie. checkpointing in
one process and restoring in another) which adds only relatively small
pieces to the kernel.  It's by no means complete but already works
rather reliably in my test setup even with heavy delay induced with

I wrote a rather long README describing how it's working, what's
missing which is appended at the end of this mail so if you're
interested in the details please go ahead and read.

Several ioctls are added to enable TCP connection CR, which adds
around 130 lines of code.  Note that the interface is ugly.  As said
above, it's proof-of-concept.  We'll need a bit more information
exported and knobs to turn and hopefully prettier interface.

As my knowledge of networking is fairly rudimentary, I only tried to
get the basics working.  e.g. I didn't try to store negotiated options
and re-establish them on restoration (ie. window scaling, mss, various
extra features), and am likely to have made wrong assumptions even on
the basics.  If you spot some, please shout.

The source is available in the following git branch (just git clone
from the URL)


and can be browsed at


I'm attaching the tcp-ioctls.patch and the source tarball.



Parasite thread injection and TCP connection hijacking example code

This example code is for linux >= 3.1-rc1 on x86_64.

The goal is to demonstrate the followings.

* Transparent injection of a thread into the target process using new
  ptrace commands - PTRACE_SEIZE and INTERRUPT.

* Using the injected thread to capture a TCP connection and restoring
  it in another process.

Both are primarily to serve as the start point for mostly userland
checkpoint-restart implementation.  The latter is likely to be of
interest to virtual server farms and high availability too.

The code contained here is by no means ready for production.  It's
more of proof-of-concept; however, I'll try to document the missing
pieces here and in the comments.


The following files are for the executable 'parasite'.

 main.c		The bulk of the example program which seizes target
		process, inject parasite and sequence it to hijack TCP

 parasite.c	Self contained code which is compiled as PIC and
		injected into target process.  Parasite thread
		executes this code.

 parasite.h	Included by both main.c and parasite.c.  Defines
		protocol used between the main program and injected
		parasite thread.

 syscall.h	Syscall interface used by parasite.c.

 setup-nfqueue	Helper script to setup iptables rules to send packets
		for a specified connection to nfqueue.  Don't mix with
		working firewall setup.  Invoked by the executable
		while hijacking TCP connection and assumed to be in
		the same directory.

 flush-nfqueue	Naive script to reverse setup-nfqueue.  It just clears
		INPUT and OUTPUT tables.  Again, don't mix with
		working firewall setup.  Invoked by the executable
		while hijacking TCP connection and assumed to be in
		the same directory.

Build procedure is a bit unusual.  parasite.c is compiled as PIC,
linked into raw binary parasite.bin using parasite.lds and hexdumped
into C array 'char parasite_blob[]' in parasite-blob.h.  main.c
includes this file and the final executable embeds the parasite blob
in it.

The followings are example programs to serve as host to inject
parasite into.

 simple-host.c	Simple pthread program.  Five threads print out
		heartbeat messages each second.  Has simple SIGUSR1/2
		handler for signal testing.

 net-host.c	TCP connection test program.  Depending on parameter,
		it either listens for connection or connects as
		directed.  Once connection is established, both
		parties keep sending incrementing uint64_t and verify
		that received data is incrementing uint64_t's.

		Has bandwidth throttling on the receiver side.  This
		ensures that both local rx and remote tx queues are

		SIGUSR1 injects uint64_t which isn't part of the
		sequence which will be detected and reported by the
		remote side.  This can be used for verification and
		measuring send(2) to recv(2) latency.

		added to verify kernel features.

tcp-ioctls.patch is a patch to implement extra TCP ioctls for
connection hijacking.  This will be discussed further later.
Applicable to kernel 3.1-rc1.

Parasite thread injection

ptrace provides access to full process memory space and register
states, so it could always have manipulated the tracee however it
pleased including making it executing arbitrary code.  Unfortunately,
the previously existing commands depended on signals to interrupt the
tracee and interaction with job control was both poorly designed and
implemented.  This meant that although ptrace could be used to inject
arbitrary code into tracee, it couldn't do that without affecting
signal and job control states.

Broken parts of ptrace have been fixed and three new ptrace requests
are available from kernel 3.1 under development flag (which is
scheduled to be removed from 3.2) - PTRACE_SEIZE, INTERRUPT and
LISTEN.  These new requests allow transparent monitoring and
manipulation of tracee.  Note that transparency is not absolute in the
sense that ptrace operations would behave as signal delivery attempt
which can affect execution of certain system calls; however, userland
is already mandated to handle the condition regardless of ptrace and
albeit not absolute it still is complete in the scope defined by the

Once all threads of the target process are seized, tracer can execute
arbitrary code using the following sequence.

1. PTRACE_SEIZE and INTERRUPT all threads belonging to the target
   process.  This is implemented in main.c::seize_process().  As noted
   in the source, the implementation isn't complete.  Proper
   implementation requires verification and retries in case thread
   creations and/or destructions race against seizing.

   Once INTERRUPT is issued, tracee either stops at job control trap
   or in exec path.  If tracee is about to exec, there isn't much to
   do anyway, so the example code simply aborts in such cases.

   From now on, all operations are assumed to be performed on one of
   the threads (any thread will do).

2. Decide where to inject the foreign code and save the original code
   with PTRACE_PEEKDATA.  Tracer can poke any mapped area regardless
   of protection flags but it can't add execution permission to the
   code, so it needs to choose memory area which already has X flag
   set.  The example code uses the page the %rip is in.

   To allow synchronization, the foreign code raises debug trap (int3)
   after execution finishes.

3. Inject the foreign code using PTRACE_POKEDATA.  The foreign code
   would usually have to be position independent and self-contained.

   Note that this page will be modified with PTRACE_POKEDATA is likely
   to trigger COW.  If a process is to be manipulated multiple times,
   it might be beneficial to use the same page every time.

4. Acquire and save the current register states using PTRACE_GETREGS
   and modify the register states for execution with PTRACE_SETREGS.
   Among others, %rip should point to the start address of the
   injected code and %orig_rax should be set to -1 to avoid
   end-of-syscall processing while returning to userland (register
   state will be restored later and end-of-syscall processing should
   happen after that).

5. Issue PTRACE_CONT to let the tracee return to userland and execute
   the injected code.  Tracer wait(2)s for tracee to enter stop state.
   Only two things can happen - signal delivery or end of execution
   notification via int3.

   Signal delivery either changes job control stop state, kills the
   process or schedules userland signal handler.  Nothing special to
   do about the first two.  For userland signal handler scheduling,
   issuing PTRACE_INTERRUPT before telling tracee to deliver signal
   with PTRACE_CONT makes tracee to re-trap after userland signal
   handler is scheduled without actually executing any userland code.
   Once scheduling is complete, retry from #4.

   After successful execution, tracee would be trapped indicating
   SIGTRAP delivery.  Squash it and put tracee back into job control
   trap by first issuing PTRACE_INTERRUPT followed by PTRACE_CONT.

   This step is implemented in execute_blob().

6. Restore saved registers and memory, and PTRACE_DETACH from all

As arbitrary syscall can be issued using injected code, it isn't
difficult to inject larger chunk of code and create a parasite thread
on it.  The example code blocks all signals, uses mmap to allocate
memory, fill it with parasite_blob[], creates the parasite thread
using clone(2) and let it execute the injected code.


Running simple-host in a session first and parasite on another yields
the following outputs.  The alphabets in the first column are
referenced below to explain what's going on.

  # ./simple-host
  thread 01(1330): alive
  thread 02(1331): alive
  thread 03(1332): alive
  thread 04(1333): alive
  thread 00(1329): alive
A BLOB: hello, world!
C PARASITE SAY: ah ah! mic test!
  thread 01(1330): alive
  thread 02(1331): alive
  thread 03(1332): alive
  thread 00(1329): alive

  # parasite `pidof simple-host`
  Seizing 1329
  Seizing 1330
  Seizing 1331
  Seizing 1332
  Seizing 1333
A executing test blob
  blocking all signals = 0, prev_sigmask 0
  executing mmap blob = 0x7f16f3024000
  executing clone blob = 1336
B executing parasite
C waiting for connection... connected
  executing munmap blob = 0
  restoring sigmask = 0, prev_sigmask 0xfffffffffffbfeef

On <A>, simple test code blob which says hi to world is injected into
the host and executed by one of the host threads to verify blob
execution works.

A series of blobs are executed afterwards to prepare for thread
injection.  The parasite thread is created in the host and released
for execution on <B>.  The first thing it does is printing out STARTED

After that the injected thread connects back to the main 'parasite'
program using a TCP connection, at which point it's directed to print
out mic test message via SAY command.  This is happening on <C>.

After that, the prep steps are reversed and the target process is
released to continue normal execution.

Job control and USR signals directed at the target process should
behave as expected (sans the extra latency introduced by parasite) no
matter when they are generated.

TCP connection hijacking

This part is much less complete and really a proof-of-concept.  The
goal is to show that TCP connection can be checkpointed in one process
and restored in another with only small additions to the networking
stack.  This also demonstrates that, with parasite threads, most
information is already available to checkpointer and adding mechanisms
to extract and manipulate more states can be done in very
non-obtrusive manner by extending existing API.  There's no new
security, locking or visibility boundary issues.

Note that CR in many cases wouldn't need this transparent snapshotting
of TCP connections.  For example, when CRing whole distributed HPC
workload, there's no reason to maintain TCP details which aren't
visible to applications at all.  Checkpointing threads injected to
both ends can simply drain the connection using recv(2) and restore
them by opening a new connection and repopulating the send buffer on
the other side with send(2).  DMTCP already uses this method to CR TCP

In general, unless the target connection is going to be terminated
from the target process and restored somewhere else immediately
(connection migration), there is little point in saving and restoring
TCP details including send and receive buffers as they become invalid
as soon as the target process exchanges further packets with the peer
after the checkpointing, and, if the peer is being checkpointed
together, draining and repopulating from each end point as described
above is far better and simpler.

With the above said, the basic states of a TCP connection can be
checkpointed and restarted with the following extra ioctls.  Note that
these ioctls should be considered as proof-of-concept.

 SIOCGINSEQ	Determine TCP sequence to be read on the next
		recv(2) - ie. tp->copied_seq.

 SIOCGOUTSEQS	Determine TCP sequences scheduled for transmission in
		reverse order.  ie. If the seq after SYN was 6, and
		20, 30 and 40 byte packets are in the tx queue without
		receiving any ack, it would return 96, 56, 26 and 6.

 SIOCSOUTSEQ	Set initial TCP sequence to use when establishing a
		connection.  Only valid on a not-yet-connected or
		listening socket.  The next connection established
		will start with the specified sequence.

 SIOCPEEKOUTQ	Peek the content of tx queue.

 SIOCFORCEOUTBD	Force packet separation on the next send(2).
		ie. data from the next send(2) won't be merged into
		the same packet with currently queued data.

A TCP connection can be snapshotted using the following sequence.

s1. Seize target process and inject a parasite thread.

s2. Acquire basic target socket information - IPs and ports.

s3. Block both incoming and outgoing packets belonging to the

s4. Acquire rx queue information - the sequence number of the next
    byte to be read and the content of recv buffer.  The former is
    available through SIOCGINSEQ and the latter with recvmsg(2) w/

s5. Acquire tx queue information - the sequence numbers of all pending
    packets and the content of send buffer.  The former is available
    through SIOCGOUTSEQS and the latter SIOCPEEKOUTQ.

None of the above steps has irreversible side effect and the
connection can be safely resumed.  To restore the connection, the
following steps can be used.

r1. Packets for the connection are still blocked from s3.  Create a
    way to intercept those packets and inject packets - nf_queue works
    for the former and raw socket for the latter.  It should drop all
    packets other than the ones injected via raw socket.

r2. Create a TCP socket, set outgoing sequence with SIOCSOUTSEQ so
    that it matches the sequence number at the head of the stored send
    queue, and initiate connection.

r3. Upon intercepting SYN, inject SYN/ACK with the sequence number
    matching the head of the stored rx queue.

r4. Upon intercepting ACK reply for SYN/ACK, repopulate the rx queue
    from the stored copy by injecting data packets and waiting for

r5. Repopulate tx queue with send(2) with interleaving SIOCFORCEOUTBD
    calls to preserve the original packet boundaries.

r6. Connection is ready now.  Let the packets pass through.

The following points are worth mentioning regarding the above

* As long as queue information is acquired after packets are blocked,
  there's no danger of data loss due to race condition on both rx and
  tx queues.  If data is received after rx queue is stored, the ack
  wouldn't reach the peer, so it will be retransmitted.  If ack is
  received after tx queue is stored, it just has extra data which will
  be acked and discarded again later.

* Both recv and send buffers need to be blown up before repopulating
  them with stored data.  SO_RCV/SNDBUFFORCE are used for this which
  disabled automatic buffer sizing.  It would be nice if there's a way
  to tell the TCP stack to resume auto resizing afterwards.

* Packet boundaries in tx queue need to be preserved, at least between
  the tx queue head and tp->snd_nxt.  This is because queue
  restoration can result in different packet division and if the peer
  already had received some of the packets before, stream can't be
  resumed with sequences falling inside existing packets.  Note that
  having more divisions is fine as long as the original boundaries are
  still there.

* Another subtlety with tx queue is that the TCP socket needs to
  think that all packets which were transmitted by the original
  connection are already transmitted before the packet barrier comes
  down - ie. its tp->snd_nxt needs to be the same as or after the
  original tp->snd_nxt; otherwise, it might end up ignoring ACKs
  stalling the connection.

  This currently is achieved by advertising maximum window on injected
  response packets so that the TCP socket sends out all queued data
  immediately.  If this isn't a guaranteed behavior, it would make
  sense to provide a way to manipulate tp->snd_nxt.

* The above sequence makes the new socket connect(2) but it would be
  better to reverse the direction to enable restoring server
  connections with N:1 port mapping.

Note that the implemented example code is incomplete in the following

* No URG handling.  As OOB data can be acquired inline with other
  data.  Adding a mechanism to export URG offset from the tail of
  queue should be enough.

* Assumes ESTABLISHED.  Proof-of-concept! I get to be lazy! :P

* Doesn't handle options properly during connection negotiation.  I
  was being lazy but also at the same time am not a network expert and
  can't tell which ones should do what.  Needs more trained eyes here.

* Connection faking isn't robust at all.  Again, needs more work and
  some love from network gurus.

* No IPv6.


Incomplete as it may be, the example implementation actually works
rather reliably.  The parasite needs to be run as root as it uses
SO_RCV/SNDBUFFORCE and executes setup-nfqueue and flush-nfqueue
scripts which manipulate netfilter tables (don't run it on your
production machine with working firewall).  Also, it assumes that the
peer of the target TCP connection is on a remote machine and only
packets injected via raw socket pass through the loopback device.

Two instances of net-host keep talking to each other on and verifying received stream is sequence of incrementing
uint64_t's.  We want to hijack the socket from the net-host instance
on and splice ourselves inside the connection so that the end
result looks like the following.

 net-host on <---> parasite on <---> net-host on


  # ./net-host 9999 1024
A Connected to
H signal 10 si_code=0
  inserting contaminant @0x22f682
G foreign data @0x2a7500 : 0xdeadbeefbeefdead


  # ./net-host 1024
A Connected to
  BLOB: hello, world!
B PARASITE SAY: ah ah! mic test!
H foreign data @0x22f682 : 0xdeadbeefbeefdead
G signal 10 si_code=0
  inserting contaminant @0x2a7500

On a different session on,

  # ls -l /proc/`pidof net-host`/fd
  total 0
  lrwx------ 1 root root 64 Aug  6 12:45 0 -> /dev/ttyS0
  lrwx------ 1 root root 64 Aug  6 12:45 1 -> /dev/ttyS0
  lrwx------ 1 root root 64 Aug  6 12:45 2 -> /dev/ttyS0
  lrwx------ 1 root root 64 Aug  6 12:45 3 -> socket:[12199]
A # ./parasite `pidof net-host` 3
  Seizing 1388
  Seizing 1389
  executing test blob
  blocking all signals = 0, prev_sigmask 0
  executing mmap blob = 0x7fa1e7caa000
  executing clone blob = 1397
  executing parasite
B waiting for connection... connected
  target socket: -> in 65392 at 0x185a3439 out 31856 at 0xb0e08180
C peeked socket buffer in 65392 out 26064
  executing munmap blob = 0
  restoring sigmask = 0, prev_sigmask 0xfffffffffffbfeef
D restoring connection, connecting...
  pkt: R->L S 185b33a9 A b0e02158 D 00000 a___ DROP
  pkt: R->L S 185b33a9 A b0e02158 D 00000 a___ DROP
  pkt: L->R S b0e02158 A 185b33a9 D 00000 a__r DROP
  pkt: L->R S b0e01baf A 00000000 D 00000 _s__ DROP DONE
  got SYN, replying with SYN/ACK
  pkt: R->L S 185a3438 A b0e01bb0 D 00000 as__ ACPT
  pkt: L->R S b0e01bb0 A 185a3439 D 00000 a___ DROP DONE
  connection established, repopulating rx/tx queues
E pkt: R->L S 185a3439 A b0e01bb0 D 01360 a___ ACPT
  pkt: L->R S b0e01bb0 A 185a3989 D 00000 a___ DROP DONE
  pkt: R->L S 185a3989 A b0e01bb0 D 01360 a___ ACPT
  pkt: L->R S b0e01bb0 A 185a3ed9 D 00000 a___ DROP DONE
  pkt: R->L S 185b3339 A b0e01bb0 D 00112 a___ ACPT
  pkt: L->R S b0e01bb0 A 185b33a9 D 00000 a___ DROP DONE
F snd: ---- S b0e01bb0 A -------- D 00000
  snd: ---- S b0e01bb0 A -------- D 01448
  snd: ---- S b0e07bd8 A -------- D 01448
G connection restored
  pkt: L->R S b0e01bb0 A 185b33a9 D 01448 a___ ACPT
  pkt: L->R S b0e02158 A 185b33a9 D 01448 a___ ACPT
  pkt: L->R S b0e04e98 A 185b33a9 D 01448 a___ ACPT
  pkt: R->L S 185b3629 A b0e02158 D 00000 a___ ACPT
  pkt: R->L S 185b3629 A b0e02700 D 00000 a___ ACPT
  pkt: R->L S 185b3629 A b0e05440 D 00000 a___ ACPT

On yet another session on,

H # killall -USR1 net-host

On yet another session on,

G # killall -USR1 net-host

<A> Two net-host instances are connected to each other sending and
    verifying each other's stream.  From /proc the socket fd is
    determined to be 3 and parasite is executed to hijack the socket.

<B> Upto this point, it's the same as the previous thread injection
    example.  Parasite thread is injected and test command is

<C> Snapshot steps s3 - s5 are executed and the fd 3 is dupped over by
    a connection to the main program.  This means on, the
    connection doesn't exist anymore; however, doesn't know
    this as packets belonging to the connection are being dropped.

<D> Restoration steps r1 - r3 are executed.

<E> rx queue is being repopulated.

<F> tx queue is being repopulated.

<G> Connection restored and the main parasite program now owns the
    original connection to net-host on and a new connection
    to net-host on  It pipes data between the two.

<H> Verify data is still flowing by triggering net-host on to
    insert foreign data in the stream, which is soon received by
    net-host on

<G> Vice-versa from to


* As said above, the ioctls are only proof-of-concept.  We'll probably
  need more information exported and maybe a few more ways to
  manipulate the states.  As long as the state manipulations stay out
  of usual stream processing - ie. they only affect connection setup,
  I don't think the added complexity or maintenance overhead would be

* Having socket inode # match in iptables would solve the packet
  matching problem.  Note that even on a busy system, this connection
  intervention shouldn't add much overhead.  While not snapshotting,
  no firewall rule is needed.  During snapshotting, only packets of
  the target connections are ipqueue'd and ipset can match many
  connections without much overhead.

* While writing, I had more things I wanted to talk about in this
  section but apparently forgot them. :( I'll add as they come back.
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-------------- next part --------------
 include/linux/sockios.h |    6 ++
 include/linux/tcp.h     |    2 
 net/ipv4/tcp.c          |  113 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
 net/ipv4/tcp_ipv4.c     |   16 ++++--
 4 files changed, 130 insertions(+), 7 deletions(-)

diff --git a/include/linux/sockios.h b/include/linux/sockios.h
index 7997a50..f5c3e41 100644
--- a/include/linux/sockios.h
+++ b/include/linux/sockios.h
@@ -127,6 +127,12 @@
 /* hardware time stamping: parameters in linux/net_tstamp.h */
 #define SIOCSHWTSTAMP   0x89b0
+#define SIOCGINSEQ	0x89b1		/* get copied_seq */
+#define SIOCGOUTSEQS	0x89b2		/* get seqs for pending tx pkts */
+#define SIOCSOUTSEQ	0x89b3		/* set write_seq */
+#define SIOCPEEKOUTQ	0x89b4		/* peek output queue */
+#define SIOCFORCEOUTBD	0x89b5		/* force output packet boundary */
 /* Device private ioctl calls */
diff --git a/include/linux/tcp.h b/include/linux/tcp.h
index 531ede8..c0945fe 100644
--- a/include/linux/tcp.h
+++ b/include/linux/tcp.h
@@ -365,6 +365,8 @@ struct tcp_sock {
 	u32	snd_up;		/* Urgent pointer		*/
 	u8	keepalive_probes; /* num of allowed keep alive probes	*/
+	u8	wseq_set    : 1;/* Write sequence set via setsockopt	*/
+	u8	force_outbd : 1;/* force packet boundary on next send	*/
  *      Options received (usually on last packet, some only on SYN packets).
diff --git a/net/ipv4/tcp.c b/net/ipv4/tcp.c
index 46febca..3389827 100644
--- a/net/ipv4/tcp.c
+++ b/net/ipv4/tcp.c
@@ -464,12 +464,118 @@ unsigned int tcp_poll(struct file *file, struct socket *sock, poll_table *wait)
+static int tcp_get_out_seqs(struct sock *sk, u32 __user *p, int size)
+	struct tcp_sock *tp = tcp_sk(sk);
+	struct sk_buff *skb;
+	int pos = 0, cnt = size / sizeof(u32);
+	if (pos < cnt && put_user(tp->write_seq, &p[pos++]))
+		return -EFAULT;
+	skb_queue_reverse_walk(&sk->sk_write_queue, skb) {
+		struct tcp_skb_cb *tcb = TCP_SKB_CB(skb);
+		if (pos < cnt && put_user(tcb->seq, &p[pos++]))
+			return -EFAULT;
+	}
+	return pos * sizeof(u32);
+static int tcp_peek_outq(struct sock *sk, void __user *arg, int size)
+	struct tcp_sock *tp = tcp_sk(sk);
+	struct iovec iov = { .iov_base = arg, .iov_len = size };
+	struct sk_buff *skb;
+	int copied = 0, err = 0;
+	int outq, skip;
+	lock_sock(sk);
+	/* XXX: why doesn't SIOCOUTQ[NSD] account for queued fin? */
+	outq = tp->write_seq - tp->snd_una;
+	skb = skb_peek_tail(&sk->sk_write_queue);
+	if (outq && skb)
+		outq -= tcp_hdr(skb)->fin;
+	skip = outq - min(size, outq);
+	skb_queue_walk(&sk->sk_write_queue, skb) {
+		int off = 0, todo;
+		if (skip) {
+			off = min_t(int, skip, skb->len);
+			skip -= off;
+		}
+		if (!(todo = skb->len - off))
+			continue;
+		if (WARN_ON_ONCE(iov.iov_len < todo)) {
+			err = -EINVAL;
+			break;
+		}
+		err = skb_copy_datagram_iovec(skb, off, &iov, todo);
+		if (err)
+			break;
+		copied += todo;
+	}
+	release_sock(sk);
+	return err ?: copied;
 int tcp_ioctl(struct sock *sk, int cmd, unsigned long arg)
 	struct tcp_sock *tp = tcp_sk(sk);
 	int answ;
 	switch (cmd) {
+		s32 size;
+		if (get_user(size, (s32 __user *)arg))
+			return -EFAULT;
+		if (size < 0)
+			return -EINVAL;
+		return tcp_get_out_seqs(sk, (u32 __user *)arg, size);
+	}
+		u32 seq;
+		if (get_user(seq, (u32 __user *)arg))
+			return -EFAULT;
+		lock_sock(sk);
+		answ = -EISCONN;
+		if ((sk->sk_socket->state == SS_UNCONNECTED &&
+		     sk->sk_state == TCP_CLOSE) || sk->sk_state == TCP_LISTEN) {
+			tp->write_seq = seq;
+			tp->wseq_set = true;
+			answ = 0;
+		}
+		release_sock(sk);
+		return answ;
+	}
+		u32 size;
+		if (get_user(size, (u32 __user *)arg))
+			return -EFAULT;
+		if ((int)size < size)
+			return -EINVAL;
+		return tcp_peek_outq(sk, (void __user *)arg, size);
+	}
+		lock_sock(sk);
+		tp->force_outbd = true;
+		release_sock(sk);
+		return 0;
+	}
+	switch (cmd) {
 	case SIOCINQ:
 		if (sk->sk_state == TCP_LISTEN)
 			return -EINVAL;
@@ -514,6 +620,9 @@ int tcp_ioctl(struct sock *sk, int cmd, unsigned long arg)
 			answ = tp->write_seq - tp->snd_nxt;
+		answ = tp->copied_seq;
+		break;
 		return -ENOIOCTLCMD;
@@ -965,7 +1074,7 @@ int tcp_sendmsg(struct kiocb *iocb, struct sock *sk, struct msghdr *msg,
 				copy = max - skb->len;
-			if (copy <= 0) {
+			if (copy <= 0 || unlikely(tp->force_outbd)) {
 				/* Allocate new segment. If the interface is SG,
 				 * allocate skb fitting to single page.
@@ -979,6 +1088,8 @@ new_segment:
 				if (!skb)
 					goto wait_for_memory;
+				tp->force_outbd = false;
 				 * Check whether we can use HW checksum.
diff --git a/net/ipv4/tcp_ipv4.c b/net/ipv4/tcp_ipv4.c
index 955b8e6..579234c 100644
--- a/net/ipv4/tcp_ipv4.c
+++ b/net/ipv4/tcp_ipv4.c
@@ -201,7 +201,8 @@ int tcp_v4_connect(struct sock *sk, struct sockaddr *uaddr, int addr_len)
 		/* Reset inherited state */
 		tp->rx_opt.ts_recent	   = 0;
 		tp->rx_opt.ts_recent_stamp = 0;
-		tp->write_seq		   = 0;
+		if (!tp->wseq_set)
+			tp->write_seq      = 0;
 	if (tcp_death_row.sysctl_tw_recycle &&
@@ -252,12 +253,12 @@ int tcp_v4_connect(struct sock *sk, struct sockaddr *uaddr, int addr_len)
 	sk->sk_gso_type = SKB_GSO_TCPV4;
 	sk_setup_caps(sk, &rt->dst);
-	if (!tp->write_seq)
+	if (!tp->write_seq && !tp->wseq_set)
 		tp->write_seq = secure_tcp_sequence_number(inet->inet_saddr,
+	tp->wseq_set = false;
 	inet->inet_id = tp->write_seq ^ jiffies;
 	err = tcp_connect(sk);
@@ -1252,7 +1253,7 @@ int tcp_v4_conn_request(struct sock *sk, struct sk_buff *skb)
 		if (net_ratelimit())
-		if (sysctl_tcp_syncookies) {
+		if (sysctl_tcp_syncookies && !tp->wseq_set) {
 			want_cookie = 1;
 		} else
@@ -1334,7 +1335,10 @@ int tcp_v4_conn_request(struct sock *sk, struct sk_buff *skb)
 	if (!want_cookie || tmp_opt.tstamp_ok)
 		TCP_ECN_create_request(req, tcp_hdr(skb));
-	if (want_cookie) {
+	if (unlikely(tp->wseq_set)) {
+		isn = tp->write_seq;
+		tp->wseq_set = false;
+	} else if (want_cookie) {
 		isn = cookie_v4_init_sequence(sk, skb, &req->mss);
 		req->cookie_ts = tmp_opt.tstamp_ok;
 	} else if (!isn) {
@@ -1526,7 +1530,7 @@ static struct sock *tcp_v4_hnd_req(struct sock *sk, struct sk_buff *skb)
-	if (!th->syn)
+	if (!th->syn && !tcp_sk(sk)->wseq_set)
 		sk = cookie_v4_check(sk, skb, &(IPCB(skb)->opt));
 	return sk;

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